• Management is primarily about people and their relationships, not about departments and their profits
  • management 3.0 = complexity
  • need to replace hierarchies with networks
  • agile software development is the best way to develop software
    • old style management is the biggest obstacle
  • managers must learn how social systems work

complexity is one of the most important concepts in the 21th century

  • those who know all about one level of a hierarchical system may be unqualified to deal with higher or lower levels because those other levels require different knowledge
  • applying linear thinking to complex system can create big mistakes

Innovation

  • innovation is key to survive for many organisations - crucial elements for innovation are
    • knowledge - to be productive
    • creativity - to produce original and useful results
    • motivation - to do something worth doing it
    • diversity - adds robustness and flexibility to an organisation
    • personality - result of people embracing a number of basic virtues
  • the orga must focus on actionable items out of ideas to really get innovation implemented
  • a team consumes information and produces innovation (means - it also need the information)

agile fundaments

  • people
    • are unique individuals
    • required to self organize
    • are trusted
  • functionality
    • direct customer involvement
    • simplicity as key for the design of each feature
  • quality
    • focus on it is crucial
    • technological excellence is needed
    • tdd, code reviews, definition of done, iterative development, refactoring, emergent design (do it when needed)
  • tools
    • for daily builds, ci, automated testing
    • to avoid boring tasks and concentrate on innovative tasks
  • time
    • sprints - to produce valuable results in a short time frame
  • value
    • fast respond to change (through fast feedback cycles)
    • detect the need in moment
  • process
    • daily face to face communication
    • continuous improvement
  • conflict
    • conflicts as natural aspect of complex systems
    • force improvement

complexity

  • difference between complexity and complication
    • e.g. a clock is complicated but not hard to to understand
    • a group of 3 people is not complicated but complex in it’s behaviour

body of knowledge of systems

  • system theory
    • a team can construct itself, can define its identity, needs to interact with its environment and importance of interaction between team members
    • most phenomena can be viewed as webs of relationships among elements
  • cybernetics
    • study of systems that have goal and interact with their environment through feedback mechanisms
    • understand the process in regulatory systems - that include iterations of acting (with effect on the environment), sensing (check response of environment), evaluating (compare current state with the goal)
    • a team is a goal oriented system that regulated itself using various feedback cycles
  • dynamical system theory
    • systems have states - some are stable others not
    • not longer changing states or states where systems tends too are attractors
    • helps to explain why some projects are stable and why sometimes an organization reverts back to its original behaviour
  • game theory
    • multiple systems compete for the same resources and systems may develop competing strategies
    • helps to explain the bevaviour of people in teams and of teams in organizations
  • evolutionary theory
    • teams, product and projects evolve while adapting to their changing environment
    • helps to understand growth, survival and adoptions of systems over time
  • chaos theory
    • even smallest changes can have tremendous consequences at a later time
    • behaviour of complex systems is often unpredictable
    • consequences for estimation, planning and control
  • dimension of a complex system
    • simple or complicated
    • ordered, complex, chaotic

energize people

  • creative phase
    • preconventional creativity
      • children <7 years
      • creative without knowing constraints
    • conventional creativity
      • children <11 years
      • creative with knowing constraints and domination of constraints
    • postconventional creativity
      • 11 years

      • knowing constraints but produce new things that use the constrains
  • problem with knowledge - it constrains peoples few of the world
  • you need to push people to the postconvetional creativity (orga often stuck in conventional creativity)
  • give challenges - e.g expose them to environments that stimulate reflection and inspiration
  • environment should be creative too - its the managers task to do this
    • safety
      • freedom to take risks and ask questions
      • acknowledgment that failures are OK
      • with safety you’re more inclined to express ideas
    • play
      • play games (turn activities into little games, play games during lunch break)
    • variation
      • routine work kill creativity
    • make sure there is always sufficient variation
    • visibility
      • show creativity results
    • edge
      • try to get edge experiences (bungee jumping,…)
      • make real challenges a little scary
  • creativity is based on intrinsic motivation
    • care about orga survival
    • care about innovation
    • care about creativity
    • care about intrinsic motivation
  • motivators
    • challenging work
    • achievement
    • personal growth
    • recognition
    • responsibilities,…
  • hygiene factors (if not present they cause damage)
    • job security
    • salary
    • status
    • working conditions
    • policies
    • fringe benefits,…
  • intrinsic needs
    • competence - the person must be capable in coping with the environment
    • autonomy - autonomous choice of action
    • relatedness - care for and be related to others, be involved in social world

10 desires of team members {#10-desires-of-team-members}

  • make people feel competent - challenging but within their grasp
  • feel accepted - make compliments on achievements
  • curiosity (Neugier) must be addressed
  • satisfying their honor
  • idealism - contribution to make the world a better place
  • independence - different from other people with own tasks and responsibilities
  • order - some company rules and policies
  • power - listen to what they have to say and arrange possibilities to do so
  • social contacts - create environment to emerge ~
  • status - let them see their status in the organization

ASK what can I do to help you do your best work?

  • acknowledges that person is capable of doing her best
  • person evaluates her own performance
  • initiates discussion about further improvements

Create motivational balance sheets

  • list points that could influence motivation and say if it motivates or demotivated - make the final balance of all points

creative techniques

  • processes
    • creative problem solving, productive thinking model, synetics
  • problem definition
    • who, why, what, where, when, how
    • divide into chunks
  • idea generation
    • brainstorming, talking pictures
  • idea selection
    • anonymous voting, consensus mapping, sticking dots

incentives

  • the pushing of individuals in a complex system leads to side effects that cannot be forseen

diversity

  • watch for every team member what connections it creates in the organizations network - to extends the common network
    • search for new people that extends or strengthen that network
    • use it in the recruiting talks - scan for behaviour to build networks

personality

  • do personal assessments for each team member ask, present your own results and let them share if they want
    • test - Big five factors of personality or sixteen personality factor questionnaire
  • do it yourself team values kit - to create own set of team values s.92
    • define also your personal values - and use not a different value set to your team (except you have all the team values already)
  • remove open door policy (implies, that there are bigger differences) - better have a no door policy

self organization

  • self organization is the default (in nature)
    • makes no distinction between good or bad – command and control pattern was invented
  • emergence - a property in a system that cannot be traced back to its individual parts is an emergent property
    • supervenience - property does not longer exist, if you remove the individual parts
    • not an aggregate - e.g. fluidity of water is not only through the addition of water molecules
    • downward causality - influences the individual parts - e.g. culture influences its group members
    • physics - chemistry - biology - psychology - economics
      • each level has emergent properties
      • you can’t explain problems by only picking one part of a system
    • collective decision making without central planning
    • system (team) can be more than the sum of its parts
    • emergent behaviour of a team cannot be predicted when you put a team together
  • self selection - team that selects it’s own team members - its an emerging team (no manager was not defined by the manager)
  • self direction - no management from outside is directing (some friends playing football)
  • darkness principle - each team member has only an incomplete mental model of the whole projects
    • thats why you need to plan and decide together
    • self organized teams increase control (because the darkness principle is also applied to managers)
    • software development = micromanagement by the team
    • delegation of control is the best way to keep projects manageable - Conant-Ashby Theorem - Every good regulator of a system must have a model of that system
      • you push decisions and responsibilities down to a level where someone has information that is smaller in size and more accurate
      • most of the decisions should be made in the subsystems
  • distributed control is better (nature did it - brain, digestive nerv system, immune system)
    • a single controlling authority makes a system neither robust nor resilient
  • empowerment
    • core responsibility of a manager
    • reason - improve manageability and also motivation
    • people must be empowered to make their own decisions based on their (better) information - whether they like it or not
    • don’t create motivational dept
      • don’t be bossy - people don’t want to be told what to do - they want to be asked
    • wear a wizard’s hat
      • the wise wizards never do the real work - they help the heros to succeed
    • is more than just delegation
      • includes support of risk taking, personal growth and cultural change
      • also acknowledges how powerful people already are
    • improves worker satisfaction and quality of life
    • improves productivity and quality of service
    • does not diminish your own status - it’s more likely to increase it
      • you make your team (and therewith yourself) better if you empower it
    • investment (takes a while to pay the interest rate) in social capital
    • choose the right maturity level - low, moderate, high
    • pick right authority level - Tell, Sell, Consult, Agree, Advise, Inquire, Delegate
      • tell - make decision and announce it
      • sell - make decision and attempt to gain commitment
      • consult - invite and weight input before making a decision
      • agree - invite workers and join a discussion to reach consensus in a group - your voice is equal to others
      • advise - attempt to influence workers by telling them our opinion - they decide
      • inquire - let them decide first - ask them to convince you afterwards
      • delegate - leave decision entirely up to the team
    • gradually build up empowerment - by giving more and more challenging tasks
    • number of persons to involve for each task?
      • depends on risk - a group can reduce the risk
      • options (depends on the situation):
        • one specific person with another (higher) level
        • express the requirement that must agree
        • allow people on the same level to act on their own
        • team needs to assign someone to do something
    • use delegation checklist (page 132) - all questions should be answered with yes - if not - make the team aware of it
      • is the risk factor of delegating this work adequately addressed
      • do the people have the right empowerment skills and discipline
      • have you considered and selected the right level of authority
      • have you considered the question of delegating to individuals or to teams
      • is what you’re delegating a discrete chunk of work
      • do the people have the skills to do this particular kind of work
      • do the people have the right format for the work products to use
      • do the people have the tools necessary to be useful
      • do the people know what the results should look like
      • did you set the boundary conditions for the work (e.g. budget, time, resources)
      • do the people know when the work is due
      • do the people know what progress looks like
      • do the people know how often to report to you on progress
      • is someone available to coach or mentor the people in case they need help
    • if you want something done - practice your patience (never do it yourself)
      • what did I do wrong - use the checklist to analyze this too
      • address the intrinsic desires
      • make sure that the environment is supportive (and work on it if its not the case)
  • trust
    • trust your team
      • let them solve problems in the team
      • make it clear who is responsible
    • earn trust from people
      • do what you say, do what you’re committed to
      • behaviour must be predictably pleasant
    • help people trust each other
      • communication and commitment
      • respect them - give them the environment to try - others built also trust on their skills
    • trust yourself
      • you can only trust others if you trust yourself
    • respect
      • know what people think about you - ask for feedback
      • what is it that I should stop doing
      • what is it that I should start doing
      • what is it that I should continue doing
    • and give feedback
      • be somehow in the topic (at least at an high level)
  • organization structure
    • ordered
      • no creativity and innovation
      • no empowerment
      • bureaucracy - behaviour is regular and predictable
    • complex
      • employees often don’t empower themselves - they are empowered by managers
    • chaos
      • self empowerment - not structured and predictable

who or what is tuning the rules in an organization

  • misconception is that managers do it
  • managers are not responsible for self orga
  • its the managers job to make sure that the people can create their own rules together
  • one responsibility is the development of a self organizing system
  • alignment of constraints - and protection of the system
    • protect people and shared resources - make sure they’re treated fairly
  • self- orga needs a boundary around it
  • make sure that what emerges has value to you and the environment
  • you don’t manage the people - you manage the system
  • define the direction of the self-organizing system
  • short - tasks
    • develop the system, protect the system, direct the system

leader

  • a complex system does not need a single leader - needs more leaders by topic
  • a cross-functional team functions better when it has multiple leaders - each with own area(s) of interest
  • rulers - law making. enforcement and sanctioning
  • football - leaders are the teams best players - rulers are the referees
  • managers are leaders and rulers
    • do also governance(administrative leadership) - like hire/fire
    • what projects to work on, how much they are going to earn, what clothes to wear
  • leader - agree, advise, inquire
  • ruler - tell, sell, consult

purpose and goals

  • every living system has an intrinsic purpose (comes naturally to a system)
  • every living system can have an extrinsic purpose - assigned to it by an owner
  • every living system can have an autonomous purpose - assumed by itself
  • the goal of the team is not a result of the goals of its team members but of the interaction between the team members
  • shareholder value is NOT the goal of an organization (its the goal of the shareholder)
    • an organization has many stakeholders - each with their own goals
  • friedman - was not aware of the complex system - when he said shareholder value is the only goal of an organization
    • shareholder value is an outcome - not a strategy
  • what’s the purpose of a software team?
    • intrinsic - product software
    • extrinsic - (defined to have the boundary and allow self orga to take place in the right direction) - needs to be defined by the manager

how to align constraints

  • goal - only an extrinsic or autonomous purpose; if intrinsic use better - meaning
  • the team should have/get a shared goal - examples:
    • next year we’re going to win the Best Product award for our industry
  • checklist for agile goals - pick some of them that you find important to the current situation:
    • specific and understandable that people know what it means
    • simple and concise that it fits on a small sticky note
    • manageable and measurable that success can be determined
    • memorable and reproducible that it can be communicated to others easily
    • attainable and realistic to have a chance to achieve it
    • ambitious and stimulating so that it isn’t too easy to achiv
    • actionable and assignable to turn it into specific actions
    • agreed upon and committable that people feel responsible for it
    • relevant and useful that people care about it
    • time-bound and time-specific that people know when to do it
    • tangible and real to see the effects of achieving it
    • excitable and igniting that people are motivated to do their best
    • inspiring and visionary to see the bigger picture
    • value-based and fundamental that it builds on company values, team values or personal values
    • revisitable and assessable to reassess its applicability later

Goals

goal don’ts {#goal-don’ts}

  • not created to intimidate people and threaten them (with loss of their jobs)
  • not defined merely to impress shareholders or people watching the orga from the sideline
  • should not favour short term wins over long term losses
  • should not distract people from a desired outcome by focusing only on the action plan
  • not too many goals

agile goals (in difference to old goals)

  • higher purpose - transcends goals of all individuals (not only CEO or shareholders)
  • goal depends on its context
  • should not be connected to rewards or incentives - should address intrinsic desires (as learned from Drive - extrinsic motivation often destroy creativity)
  • should give employees a sense of direction

communicate your goal

  • you raise the pressure and make it transparent

ASK - Do you still know what your goal is? How is this action going to help us in achieving our goal?

vision statement

  • created for business, projects and products
  • outward facing
  • deals with place the system has in the world and the change it will bring to its environment
  • is about the desired end state
  • paint picture about delighted users, market domination, world peace

mission statement

  • used for groups and teams
  • inward facing
  • steering the internal dynamics of a system
  • is about the way to get to an end state
  • talk about technical excellence, innovative achievements, defeating the competition

allow team to have an autonomous goal

  • you need to map other goals with it
  • other goals should not overrule the team autonomous goal
  • team must find it on their own - never tell them to create their own goal

use boundary list of authority

  • table with key decision area, how (authority level- see above), whe (team/individual)
  • avoids that people run into hidden electrical fences - helps to keep them motivated and productive
  • set authority level to lowest possible level

protect people

  • self organizing system must not be fair (see kids group)
  • manager promotes self organization but also needs to protect people
  • ask - Who are your friends there to get a feeling if the member is integrated

manage shared resources

  • otherwise it leads to the tragedy of the commons - work the four ingredients:
    • institutions
      • work on building trusting relationships between competing systems - to increase acceptance of common rules
    • information
      • that increases the understanding of the physical and social environment - reduce uncertainty
    • identity
      • increase one’s sense of community and reduce competition
    • incentives
      • reward responsible use, punish overuse

quality

  • you need to put the right and clear constraints in place to enforce quality

social contract for orga

  • freedom to voice your opinion
  • professional development
  • nondiscrimination
  • help

team - rules

  • agree on the team’s direction; don’t go at it yourself (alignment)
  • don’t collide with team members and prevent problems (separation)
  • work together with the team; don’t single yourself out (cohesion)

some agile manager principles

  • culture - no matter what other methods you apply to achieve competence in a social system - in the end it all depends on whether people actually care
  • instructors - teach people how to do their jobs properly - again, and again and again
  • drivers license - require that people are properly tested before allowing them to participate in (challenging) projects
  • traffic signs - decrease the chance of problems in your teams by using smart and proactive tools, checklists, alerts, notifications
  • traffic police - have a process manager walking around whose job it is to make samples of the results in your projects and check whether the quality output is produced
  • car horn - make sure your team members have guts to tell each other how to improve their daily work
  • government - management will need to clean up the mess

feedback loops

  • positive feedback loops - effect increases itself
    • you need to recognize feedback loops - enables to understand why an orga can get stuck in a certain kind of behaviour
  • negative feedback loops - system counteracts by slowing down the change
    • when an organization grows, the amount of overhead increases with the square of its size, whereas the horsepower of the orga grows only linearly
  • can bring stability to a system
  • intentional feedback loops in a short cycle are often better than in long cycles

Competence - discipline * skill {#competence-discipline-*-skill}

  • discipline
    • importance of discipline is evident
    • skipping discipline makes you go slower (you produce technical dept)
    • maturity levels
      • oblivious (vergesslich) - we even don’t know that we perform a process
      • variable - we do whatever we feel
      • routine - follow our routines (except when panic)
      • steering - choose among routines
      • anticipating - establish routines based on past experience
      • congruent - everyone is involved in improving everything all the time
  • skill
    • novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, expert
    • skill differs from discipline and must be developed separately
  • create a skill - discipline matrix
    • maturity can be measured with those two dimensions
    • managers must take care of both dimensions
  • rules
    • behaviour of a team is guided by rules
    • each team member maintains his own set of rules
    • avoid senseless synch of rules - give them freedom - it motivates
    • competing rules in a team can strengthen the whole
    • good rules are adopted by all team members
  • subsidiarity - organizing principle that things should be handled by the smallest, lowest or least centralized competent authority
    • responsibility of individual worker unless he cannot perform its tasks effectively - then establish the rule on the next higher level
      • e.g. follow your own rules of writing unit tests unless the team can prove that its more effective to establish centralized rules
    • people can make rules on their own - they don’t need managers for that
    • please explain me why your higher level rules are more effective than my individual rules
  • avoid precautionary principle - when something might go wrong make a new law to prevent it from happening
  • you achieve the best results if your create your own rules on the spot - approriate for the situation of the day
    • the best way to implement agile processes is to do it your own way (wailgum 2007??)
  • memeplex - collection of interdependent memes (pair programming, refactoring, iterative development)
    • e.g. Christman, Scrum, agile software development
    • practices in a memeplex tend to reinforce each other (positive and negative feedback loops!)
    • is much stronger than the individual memes
    • help to copy it as a bundle between peoples minds
      • it can be easier to get people adopt multiple ideas, concepts and practices simultaneously
      • not all ideas, concepts and practices need to be beneficial - the bad ideas still could help to copy the good ideas
      • the removal of individual memes may weaken or destroy the strength of the memeplex
      • multiple competing memeplexes may reinforce each other (e.g. XP, Scrum, Kanban - draw intention the agile brands in general)
      • memes can appear in different memeplexes
  • broken window theory (signs of disordery and petty behavior trigger more disorderly and criminal behaviour - causing the behavior to spread)
    • behaviour = function of person and his environment – people tend to adapt their behaviour to the environment they live in
    • bad behavior is likely to lead to more bad behaviour
    • big problems often start small
    • if a problem is too big to handle - target another related but smaller problem

How to develop competence?

  • maturity models are too narrowly focused on processes
    • an orgas capability of learning and processes is measured but not the capability of being innovative and adaptive in a complex environment
    • applying one rank to an entire orga is useless - there are many different topics to consider in complex systems - and every part needs a ranking
      • instead classify specific activities performed by specific people

approaches to competence development (should begin with the first approach - and the followers are fallbacks) - competency stack:

  • self
    • self discipline and self development - refer to one’s own initiative
    • its part of the behaviour I have adopted myself and that I intend to stick to
  • coach
    • training a person to develop specific skills and behaviours
  • tests
    • some authority verified that a person has the necessary skills and behaviour
  • tools
    • signs and signals to steer people’s behaviour
  • peers
    • influence by a group to encourage a person to change her behaviour
  • supervisors
    • making sure - on behalf of an orgas managment that people are doing their jobs
  • manager
    • its about setting good examples and about ruling and judging in some cases

sub-optimization principle

  • if each subsystem, regarded separately, is made to operate with maximum efficiency, the system as a whole will not operate with utmost efficiency
  • conclusion: always optimize the whole
    • what you measure and constrain has to cover everything
    • global metrics over local metrics
      • metric of individual performance should be combined with metrics on team leam level should be combined with metrics on business unit …

7 measurable dimensions of software development {#7-measurable-dimensions-of-software-development}

  • functionality (story points completed)
  • quality (problems reported)
  • tools (costs per month)
  • people (impediments reported by team members)
  • time (days remaining until live release)
  • process (checklists completed)
  • value (increase in users per minute)

performance metrics

  • distinguish skill from discipline
    • helps skilled people to think about discipline and vice versa
    • discipline: task-board is up to date skill: few bugs reported, no build failures, customer demos always accepted

Books

  • peopleware
  • first break all the rules
  • the 21 irrefutable laws of leadership
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