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How to provide opinions


Graham’s Hierarchy of Disagreement, also known as the “Graham’s Pyramid,” is a concept introduced by Paul Graham, an essayist and programmer. It categorizes the various levels of the quality of argument in a disagreement

  1. Name-calling: This is the lowest level of disagreement and involves attacks on a person rather than addressing the argument or evidence.
  2. Ad Hominem: At this level, while the attack is on an opponent’s characteristics or authority, it’s slightly better than name-calling as it might relate to the argument.
  3. Responding to Tone: Here, the focus shifts to criticizing the tone of the argument rather than the substance of the argument itself.
  4. Contradiction: This level consists of stating the opposite position without supporting evidence or reasoning.
  5. Counterargument: Counterargument is higher on the pyramid and involves contradicting with some supporting evidence or reasoning.
  6. Refutation: This level finds a mistake in an opponent’s argument and explains why it’s a mistake based on evidence and reasoning.
  7. Refuting the Central Point: The highest level of disagreement, this involves explicitly refuting the central point of the argument with evidence and logic.


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